Polygon400, Standard



White Paper: Patterned Illumination Systems for Optogenetics

Customer Testimonials: Optogenetic Experiments using Polygon400 Patterned Illuminators.

Researchers from all over the world sharing their success stories using Polygon400 for their optogenetic experiments.


New Site

The requirement for precise spatial, temporal, and spectral control of light is vital for several cutting-edge scientific applications (such as optogenetics, photoactivation, uncaging, and photostimulation etc.). Patterned illumination provides scientists with these fine-tuned capabilities that are not possible with wide-field illumination. In particular, precise control of light is crucial for the highly advancing field of optogenetics. Patterned illumination enables optogenetic control of sub-cellular, single-cell, and multiple cell activity by precisely delivering light of different colors, with high spatial and temporal resolution, to stimulate or silence neurons. These features, combined with independent for simultaneous control of cellular activity at different locations, will facilitate our functional understanding of single-cell activity and neural circuits.

* Optogenetics   * Photoactivation   * Photostimulation  * Photopatterning   * Structured illumination * Uncaging

Here are some examples of the latest publications using the Polygon400:
Andrási, Tibor, et al. "Differential excitatory control of 2 parallel basket cell networks in amygdala microcircuits." PLoS Biology (2017).
(2) Adrian, Max, et al. "A Phytochrome-Derived Photoswitch for Intracellular Transport." ACS Synthetic Biology (2017).
(3) Shimizu, Kazumichi, and Mark Stopfer. "A population of projection neurons that inhibits the lateral horn but excites the antennal lobe through chemical synapses in Drosophila." Frontiers in Neural Circuits (2017).
(4) H. E. Johnson, Y. Goyal, et al, “The Spatiotemporal Limits of Developmental Erk Signaling”, Developmental Cell, January 2017;
(5) A. Y. Malyshev et al, “Chloride conducting light activated channel GtACR2 can produce both cessation of firing and generation of action potentials in cortical neurons in response to light”, Neuroscience Letters, February 2017;
(6) James L. Butler, Philipe R. F. Mendonc, Hugh P. C. Robinson, and Ole Paulsen, "Intrinsic Cornu Ammonis Area 1 Theta-Nested Gamma Oscillations Induced by Optogenetic Theta Frequency Stimulation", The Journal of Neuroscience, April 13, 2016; and
(7) Natalia V De Marco García, et al "Sensory inputs control the integration of neurogliaform interneurons into cortical circuits", Nature, Feb. 2015.

Selected List of Polygon400 Customers Worldwide: 
institute list
(For a more complete list, please click on the image below or click here.)



Customer Testimonials and Application Examples -

1. Single-cell resolution optical control of spiking using the Polygon400

(a) Illustration of highly targeted optical stimulation of a single ChR2-mCherry expressing neuron in the mouse somatosensory cortex. Using a small (25 μm diameter), low-powered (3 mW) spot of illumination centred on the target cell, action potentials could be induced in current clamp (top trace), without any indication in voltage clamp of post-synaptic currents caused by spiking in other neurons (bottom trace). (b) Illustration of illumination with a large (125 μm diameter), high-powered (15 mW) spot. Multiple spikes were induced in current clamp, and voltage clamp traces showed evidence of post-synaptic currents caused by spiking in other neurons.


(Courtesy Matthew Tran and Dr. Blake Richards, Learning in Neural Circuits Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, ON, Canada.)

2. Channelrhodopsin-Assisted Circuit Mapping (CRACM) Using the Polygon400

A) Image of an acute brain slice prepared from a Thy1-ChR2-EYFP mouse with ChR2 expression in L5 pyramidal neurons. Whole-cell patch clamp recording from a L2/3 cell. B) Light-activated excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) triggered by patterned illumination of a 10x10 grid with 473 nm LED. C) Colormap of the activation pattern. D) Histogram of automatically measured responses from all cells in a grid. Objective lens is 10X.

(Courtesy Qiuyu Wu and Dr. Alexander Chubykin, Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA)

3. Optogenetic stimulation of synaptic inputs using Mightex's Polygon400.
Polygon400 for Optogenetics

Light-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) recorded in a transgenic mice expressing ChR2 in GABAergic neurons. The postsynaptic cell is non-GABAergic (ChR2 negative) and blue light stimulates GABAergic afferents expressing ChR2. Blue bars indicate the time of light illumination.

Spot 1 illuminated by Polygon400 evoked reliable IPSCs whereas Spot 2 caused no response.

(Courtesy Dr. Wataru Inoue, University of Western Ontario, Canada.)

4. Light-modulated protein-protein interactions on a coverslip surface.

The video shows a protein-protein interaction that is inhibited by blue light exposure. One component is coupled to the coverslip through biotin surface chemistry, the other is labeled with mCherry, and binds to the coverslip in the dark. Patterned illumination with the Polygon 400 results in reversible dissociation of the mCherry-tagged protein, which rebinds within minutes of turning off blue light exposure. The Wittmann lab is working on developing this into a cell adhesion surface that can be controlled by light.

(Courtesy Dr. Torsten Wittmann, University of California San Francisco.)

5. Mapping optically induced depolarization in ChR2-expressing hippocampal neurons using Polygon400.

E18 Sprague-Dawley rat neurons were transduced with CamKII-ChR2-GFP lentivirus. Somatic activity was recorded via whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. Each field was illuminated by the Polygon400 at 100% power and 20ms exposure time. Intensity of magenta pattern represents depolarization with respect to the instantaneous resting potential prior to stimulation with the Polygon's 470nm LED. In the image, green represents the magnitude of GFP signal and black represents the fluorescence intensity of AlexaFluor 594 backfilled by the patch pipette.

(Courtesy Dr. Jacob T. Robinson, Departments of ECE and BioE, Rice University, Houston, Texas. Data collected and prepared by Dan Murphy, Joel Dapello and Ben Avants.)

6. Photopatterning of an acrylate film.

A 50 μm film of liquid tetra (ethylene glycol) diacrylate, containing 1 wt% Irgacure 819 photoinitiator, was irradiated through a glass coverslip, using the Polygon400 and a 400 nm LED light source to project a pattern onto the film surface. (A) Projection of CU logo image using the 400 nm LED and a 4X objective. (B) Brightfield image of the resulting pattern in the film. Photopolymerization causes a large change in refractive index in the resin, allowing immediate visualization of the pattern. Standard development techniques could subsequently be performed by washing the film in solvent to remove the unexposed areas of liquid resin.

(Courtesy Gayla Berg, Bowman Research Group, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA.)

7. Achieving subcellular resolution of input activation in a 250μm-thick acute cortical section using the Polygon400.

NMDA-receptor mediated synaptic currents recorded at a +40mV membrane potential were elicited by light activation of Channelrhodopsin-expressing terminals of thalamocortical afferents onto an upper layer cortical GABAergic interneuron. Moving the 470nm rectangular illumination to the right or the left of the cell activates inputs of different strength innervating different somatodendritic domains of the cell. In black and red are the individual and the average traces respectively.

(Courtesy Dr. Theofanis Karayannis, Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.)

8. In vivo optogenetic control of zebrafish larva using Polygon 400 illuminator.

A) Light-evoked response of a head-fixed larva expressing channelrhodopsin (right). Photostimulation site was indicated by a blue circle (470 nm).

B) A schematic diagram of the Polygon400 patterned illumination in in-vivo optogenetic mapping system.

(Courtesy Dr. Sachiko Tsuda, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, (Research and Development Bureau) Saitama University, Saitama, Japan.)

9. Uncaging RuBi Glutamate with the Polygon400 to study neuronal networks in the cerebellar cortex

An example of connectivity mapping that allow to reproduce some results from in Valera et al, (elife, 2016). 100µM Rubi glutamate was uncaged at various location in the granular layer with 20ms pulses (blue bar), exciting notably granule cells. We can then measure the spatial organisation of the granule cells to Purkinje cell (PC) connections by recording PCs in whole cell patch clamp. Granule cells triggers both monosynaptic excitatory current onto PCs (left map, measured at -60mV), but also disynaptic inhibitory currents via molecular layer interneurons (right map, measured at 0 mV). Average evoked responses at one location (dotted blue square) are shown at the bottom of the figure. Data storage, measurements and map representations can be made online, using a homemade software in python.

(Courtesy Dr Antoine Valera and Angus Silver Lab, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology & Pharmacology, University College London (UCL), London, England.)

10.  Optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin in transfected hippocampal neurons using Mightex's Polygon400.
Polygon400 for Optogenetics

A) Patch-clamp recording of the current generated by the channelrhodopsin when activated with the blue LED light from the Polygon400 illuminator as indicated by the blue bar.

B) Activation of an action potential (upper trace) and the corresponding current under voltage-clamp conditions (lower trace). The action potential could be evoked by a 0.5ms stimulation of the blue LED light from the Polygon400 illuminator at 60% intensity.

(Courtesy Dr. Hans van Hooft, University of Amsterdam.)

11. Using Polygon to stimulate hippocampal slices acutely prepared from mice transgenically expressing ChR2 in the dentate gyrus.

The first figure is a repetitive stimulation with a larger circular pattern which elicited increasing responses until I action potential is generated. The second figure is increasing the intensity of stimulation from 30% to 100% and keeping the size pattern the same. Here we're driving the cell at 10 Hz at 100%, and one can see that the stimulation is sufficient to drive doublets of action potentials during each bout of depolarization.

(Courtesy Dr. Geoffrey G. Murphy, Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan. Recordings made by Dr. Shannon Moore.)

12. Local photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2 using Polygon400 illuminator.

A) Acute brain slice from a YFP-channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR-2) mouse depicting its expression in cortical L5 pyramidal neurons. B) L5 pyramidal neuron from the somatosensory cortex filled with Alexa 594 to allow visualization of neuronal compartments without stimulating ChR-2. Blue dots indicate on the illuminated areas (Blue LED - 470 nm) along the apical dendrite. Expansion of the marked areas depicting the delicate dendrites that were stimulated. C) Electrophysiological (patch clamp) current recordings from the soma, corresponding to local photostimulation of ChR-2 by blue light. The numbers in the bottom of the trace corresponds to the stimulated dot numbers as indicated in B.

(Courtesy Dr. Yossi Buskila, MARCS Institute, Bioelectronics and Neuroscience, University of Western Sydney, Australia.)

13. Purkinje cell firing properties unveiled by optogenetic activation of the cerebellar granular layer using variable light patterns with Mightex Polygon400

Purkinje cell (PC) firing is monitored, while various light stimulation patterns are delivered to the granular layer (gl) and/or molecular layer (ml) of acute mouse cerebellar slices. The mice cerebellum was injected with AAVs carrying the ChR2 construct. The figure shows the firing frequency increase caused in a PC unit (scale bar 500ms) by optogenetic activation of a granular layer ROI (blue rectangle).

(Courtesy Dr. Lisa Mapelli and Dr. Simona Tritto, from Egidio D'Angelo's lab, Dept of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, and Brain Connectivity Center, C. Mondino National Neurological Institute, Pavia, Italy)


Ordering Information:
Model Name Price Buy Now Availability
DSI-E-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-yyy Polygon400 Dynamic spatial illuminator with three (3) built-in LED sources. External LED controller required. [When placing your order, please specify LED wavelength codes "xxxx" and microscope interface format "yyy".]  $13,298.00USD/ea 
DSI-E-xxxx-xxxx-yyy Polygon400 Dynamic spatial illuminator with two (2) built-in LED sources. External LED controller required. [When placing your order, please specify LED wavelength codes "xxxx" and microscope interface format "yyy".]  $12,298.00USD/ea 
DSI-E-xxxx-yyy Polygon400 Dynamic spatial illuminator with one (1) built-in LED source. External LED controller required. [When placing your order, please specify LED wavelength code "xxxx" and microscope interface format "yyy".]  $11,298.00USD/ea 
DSI-G-LAPP Polygon400 Dynamic Spatial Illuminator with lightguide as input light source. PolyScan not included. Lightguide or lightsource not included. LAPP-compatible microscope interface format.  $16,990.00USD/ea 
DSI-G-yyy Polygon400 Dynamic Spatial Illuminator with lightguide as input light source. Lightguide or lightsource not included. [When placing your order, please specify microscope interface format "yyy".]  $14,298.00USD/ea 
DSI-I-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-yyy Polygon400 Dynamic spatial illuminator with three (3) built-in LED sources, PolyScan not included [When placing your order, please specify LED wavelength codes "xxxx" and microscope interface format "yyy".]  $9,998.00USD/ea 
DSI-I-xxxx-xxxx-yyy Polygon400 Dynamic spatial illuminator with two (2) built-in LED sources, PolyScan not included. [When placing your order, please specify LED wavelength codes "xxxx" and microscope interface format "yyy".]  $8,998.00USD/ea 
DSI-I-xxxx-yyy Polygon400 Dynamic spatial illuminator with one (1) built-in LED source, PolyScan not included. [When placing your order, please specify LED wavelength code "xxxx" and microscope interface format "yyy".]  $7,998.00USD/ea 
Product specifications are subject to change without prior notice. All prices are FOB California, unless otherwise stated.
Please call/email for volume pricing.
For sales and customer support:

Please call (USA) +1-925-218-1885 or (Canada) +1-416-840-4991,
or email sales@mightexsystems.com or sales@mightex.com.